Bed wars is a terrific game. How it works is, you start off with an island. Your island, is your island. (duh) Your job is to protect your bed, and make sure nobody touches it. So, you can purchase blocks, tools, potions, all the basic necessities. The other teams, are colors. Blue, aqua, yellow, pink, white, green and red. You can play solo, with a friend, two friends, or three. The way you win, is if everyone's beds are destroyed and there are no players left but your team. This game, is fun and INCREDIBLY addicting.
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Skyblock is a popular challenge, where the player starts the game in a small island in the void, including a tree and often a chest, which contains items you couldn't get without it (for example lava buckets). Many different variations of the skyblock map are available online.
Kit PVP is a server variation that specializes mainly in PVP (Player vs Player). The players must choose from a pre-set category of kits, each with their own unique items. They use these kits to fight against each other, often earning points and reputation.
Survival (Coming soon)